What is Citation?
There are three purposes to citation:
How Do I Cite?
A citation entry needs to include information that identifies the source you used, like the author, the title, and the year of publication, among some other elements. At the end of your paper, you will usually list citation entries for all of the sources you used. This list is called "works cited," "bibliography," or "references." In addition, within your paper, you will note each time you have referred to a source, using an "in-text citation" or a footnote.
There are different citation styles. Each style tells you:
Why Are There Multiple Citation Styles?
Not to make your life difficult! Ask your professor what style to use. Usually, though, what style you use depends on what academic discipline you are working in. For example, if you write a paper for an English class, usually you will use MLA style. If you write a paper for a psychology class, usually you will use APA. In the menu on the left, there is specific information on common citation formats
Formatting Your Paper
Each style guide will also tell you how you should format your paper--things like margins, font size, headings, title, punctuation, etc
Used to using MLA, but now you need to use APA? Taking a history class for the first time, and now your professor is using Chicago? This page has side by side comparisons of how to cite different resources in each style
APA (Author, Year, p. #)
Two Authors: (Lastname & Lastname, Year, p. #)
Three or More Authors: (Lastname et al., Year, p. #)
No Author: ("Title of Work," Year, P#)
Organizational Author: (American Psychological Association, Year, P#)
MLA (Author #)
Two Authors: (Lastname and Lastname #)
Three or More Authors: (Lastname et al #)
No Author: (Title of Work #)
Organizational Author: (Modern Langauge Association #)
Chicago [footnote]: Author, Title, #
APA: Lastname, A. (Copyright Year). Book title (Nth ed). Publishing Company
MLA: Lastname, Firstname. Book Title. Publishing Company, Copyright Year.
Chicago: Lastname, Firstname. Book Title. Publisher City, Publishing Company, Year.
Journal Articles (Retrieved Online)
APA: Author, A. (Year) Article title. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), pages, http:/doi.org/XXX.
MLA: Author, Firstname. “Article Title.” Journal Title, vol #, issue #, #-#, Year. Database Name, DOI.
Chicago: Author, Firstname. “Article Title.” Journal Title Volume number, issue number, (Month Year): Pages.
APA: Author, A. (Date). Page title. Site Name. URL
If the Website's Organization is the Author: Organization. (Date). Page title. URL.
MLA: Author, Firstname. “Page Title.” Website Name, Date. URL
Chicago: Author, Firstname. “Page Title.” Website Name, Date, URL.
Webpage (where some information isn’t available or doesn’t exist)
APA: Page title. (n.d.) Site Name. Retrieved M/D/Year, from URL
MLA: “Page Title.” Website Name, URL. Accessed on Day Month Year.
Chicago: “Page Title.” Website Name. Accessed Month Day, Year.
Author and Authors
Two Authors: Lastname, A. & Lastname, B.
Three to Twenty Authors: Lastname, A., Lastname, B., & Lastname, C.
More than Twenty Authors: Lastname, A., Lastname, B., Lastname, C., Lastname, D., Lastname, E., Lastname, F., Lastname, G., Lastname, H., Lastname, I., Lastname, J., Lastname, K., Lastname, L., Lastname, M., Lastname, N., Lastname, O., Lastname, P., Lastname, Q., Lastname, R., Lastname, S., ... Lastname, Z.
Unknown Author: Omit author and move (year) to after the title: Title. (Year). Location: Publisher.
Two Authors: Lastname, Firstname1 & Firstname2 Lastname.
More than Two Authors: Lastname, Firstname1 et al
Two or More Authors: Lastname, Firstname1 & Firstname2 Lastname.
What are the major features of APA? For full information, use the resources below:
Note: All links and documents address APA 7th Edition, the current edition as of October 2019
What are the major features of MLA? For full information, use the resources below.
What are the major features of Chicago? For full information, use the resources below.
There are other citation styles that may be used for specific disciplines, for particular publications, or designed by individual organizations for their needs.
APSA (American Political Science Association)
SBL Handbook (Society of Biblical Literature)
The Society of Biblical Literature publishes a manual to help with formatting when writing with Biblical sources, including conventions around transliteration of words
AMA (American Medical Association)
Citation Managers allow you to collect and organize all your scholarly sources (from Touro Quicksearch, Ebsco, Proquest, Google Scholar, and other databases), into one place. Then, you can use the citation manager to easily and quickly create citations for your research papers.
But be careful! The citation you get will only be as correct as the information the citation manager collected: If Ebsco formatted something wrong, or if the citation manager's algorithm is out of date, your citation will also be wrong!
ALWAYS proofread the citations, and remember that YOU know more about the sources you are citing than the citation manager does.
With a citation generator, you input the citation information and choose the style, and the citation generator formats it. But be careful! Make sure the information you put in is accurate and complete, and that you know what kind of source it is (book, article, website, dissertation, etc)
ALWAYS double-check that the end result is correct. Citation generators are convenient but not perfect, and YOU know more about the source than the generator does
Any time you use information or ideas from another source, whether you are directly quoting, paraphrasing, summarizing, or referring to that source, it is very important to appropriately cite. Follow the links below for more information on identifying when citation is necessary