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Citing Sources: Creating Citations

Information about academic integrity, avoiding plagiarism, and guides to creating citations in a variety of styles, such as APA, MLA, AMA, Chicago and more.

Contents

About Citation

What is Citation?

Why Cite?

There are two purposes to citation:

  • When you provide a citation for a quotation or idea, you give credit to the person who came up with those words or that idea
  • A correct citation will make it possible for your reader to find the resources you used

How Do I Cite?

A citation entry needs to include information that identifies the source you used, like the author, the title, and the year of publication, among some other elements. At the end of your paper, you will usually list citation entries for all of the sources you used. This list is called "works cited," "bibliography," or "references." In addition, within your paper, you will note each time you refer to a source, using an "in-text citation" or a footnote.

 There are different citation styles. Each one tells you:

  • How to format the author, title, year, and other identifying information
  • Whether to use in-text citation or footnotes
  • In addition, the citation style you use will give you guidelines about how to format your paper

Why Are There Multiple Citation Styles?

Not to make your life difficult! Ask your professor what style to use. Usually, though, what style you use depends on what academic discipline you are working in.  For example, if you write a paper for an English class, usually you will use MLA style. If you write a paper for a psychology class, usually you will use APA. In the menu on the left, there is specific information on common citation formats

Citation Managers

Citation Managers allow you to collect and organize all your scholarly sources (from Touro Quicksearch, Ebsco, Proquest, Google Scholar, and other databases), into one place. Then, you can use the citation manager to easily and quickly create citations for your research papers.

But be careful! The citation you get will only be as correct as the information the citation manager collected: If Ebsco formatted something wrong, or if the citation manager's algorithm is out of date, your citation will also be wrong!

ALWAYS proofread the citations, and remember that YOU know more about the sources you are citing than the citation manager does. 

Citation Generators

With a citation generator, you input the citation information and choose the style, and the citation generator formats it. But be careful! Make sure the information you put in is accurate and complete, and that you know what kind of source it is (book, article, website, dissertation, etc)

ALWAYS double-check that the end result is correct. Citation generators are convenient but not perfect, and YOU know more about the source than the generator does

APA (American Psychological Association)

MLA (Modern Languages Association)

AMA (American Medical Association)

Chicago (Author-Date & NB)

APSA (American Political Science Association)

What to Cite & How

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