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Use this guide to search for Open Educational Resources in different disciplines

Algebra and Trigonometry

algebra and trigonometryAlgebra and Trigonometry (OpenStax)

Algebra and Trigonometry provides a comprehensive exploration of algebraic principles and meets scope and sequence requirements for a typical introductory algebra and trigonometry course. The modular approach and the richness of content ensure that the book meets the needs of a variety of courses. Algebra and Trigonometry offers a wealth of examples with detailed, conceptual explanations, building a strong foundation in the material before asking students to apply what they’ve learned.

License: Algebra and Trigonometry by OpenStax is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License v4.0

Books approved by the American Institute of Mathematics

The American Institute of Mathematics (AIM) seeks to encourage the adoption of open source and open access mathematics textbooks. The AIM Editorial Board has developed evaluation criteria to identify the books that are suitable for use in traditional university courses. The Editorial Board maintains a list of Approved Textbooks which have been judged to meet these criteria.

All of the books below, organized by course title, have been judged to meet the evaluation criteria set by the AIM editorial board.

Abstract Algebra

algebra abstract and concreteAlgebra: Abstract and Concrete, by Frederick Goodman, provides a thorough introduction to "modern'' or "abstract'' algebra at a level suitable for upper-level undergraduates and beginning graduate students. The book addresses the conventional topics: groups, rings, fields, and linear algebra, with symmetry as a unifying theme.

Important note: the author reserves all rights to this work. However, individual readers, classes or study groups may copy, store and print the work, in whole or in part, for their personal use. Any copy of this work, or any part of it, must include the title page with the author’s name and this copyright notice. No use or reproduction of this work for commercial purposes is permitted without the written permission of the author. This work may not be adapted or altered without the author’s written consent.

abstract algebra: theory and applications

Abstract Algebra: Theory and Applications.

The content of this book is traditional for a first course in abstract algebra at the junior or senior level. It may be used for either one or two semesters. The exercises include both computational and theoretical and there are a number of applications. Hints or short answers are given to most problems but not fully written solutions.

Versión en español disponible aquí

License: This textbook is licensed under a GNU Free Documentation License, which allows users to  the rights to copy, redistribute, and modify a work. All copies and derivatives should be available under the same license.


Calculus (OpenStax)

Calculus is designed for the typical two- or three-semester general calculus course, incorporating innovative features to enhance student learning. The book guides students through the core concepts of calculus and helps them understand how those concepts apply to their lives and the world around them. Due to the comprehensive nature of the material, this book is offered in three volumes for flexibility and efficiency.


Click on the volume number to see each textbook and its ancillary resources.

Volume 1 covers functions, limits, derivatives, and integration. 

Volume 2 covers integration, differential equations, sequences and series, and parametric equations and polar coordinates.

Volume 3 covers parametric equations and polar coordinates, vectors, functions of several variables, multiple integration, and second-order differential equations.


by David Guichard

The book covers the standard material in a calculus course for science and engineering. The size of the book is such that an instructor does not have to skip sections in order to fit the material into the typical course schedule. The single variable material is contained in eleven chapters beginning with analytic geometry and ending with sequences and series. The multivariable material consists of five chapters and includes with the vector calculus of in two and three dimensions through the divergence theorem. The book ends with a final chapter on differential equations.

LicenseCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike

Active Calculus

Matt Boelkins (Lead author and editor)

From the preface:

Where many texts present a general theory of calculus followed by substantial collections of worked examples, we instead pose problems or situations, consider possibilities, and then ask students to investigate and explore. Following key activities or examples, the presentation normally includes some overall perspective and a brief synopsis of general trends or properties, followed by formal statements of rules or theorems. While we often offer a plausibility argument for such results, rarely do we include formal proofs.

LicenseCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike

College Algebra and Precalculus

The peer-reviewed textbooks below also provide ancillary resources such as PowerPoint slides, test banks, sample syllabus, etc.

Click on the book cover to access multiple formats of the textbook.



Pre-algebra (OpenStax)

Prealgebra is designed to meet scope and sequence requirements for a one-semester prealgebra course. The book’s organization makes it easy to adapt to a variety of course syllabi. The text introduces the fundamental concepts of algebra while addressing the needs of students with diverse backgrounds and learning styles. Each topic builds upon previously developed material to demonstrate the cohesiveness and structure of mathematics.

college algebra book

College Algebra (OpenStax)

College Algebra provides a comprehensive exploration of algebraic principles and meets scope and sequence requirements for a typical introductory algebra course. The modular approach and richness of content ensure that the book meets the needs of a variety of courses. College Algebra offers a wealth of examples with detailed, conceptual explanations, building a strong foundation in the material before asking students to apply what they’ve learned.

precalculus​Precalculus (OpenStax)

Precalculus is adaptable and designed to fit the needs of a variety of precalculus courses. It is a comprehensive text that covers more ground than a typical one- or two-semester college-level precalculus course. The content is organized by clearly-defined learning objectives and includes worked examples that demonstrate problem-solving approaches in an accessible way.

License: Precalculus by OpenStax is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License v4.0


applied combinatoricsApplied Combinatorics

Mitchel T. Keller and William T. Trotter

Applied Combinatorics is an open-source textbook for a course covering the fundamental enumeration techniques (permutations, combinations, subsets, pigeon hole principle), recursion and mathematical induction, more advanced enumeration techniques (inclusion-exclusion, generating functions, recurrence relations, Polyá theory), discrete structures (graphs, digraphs, posets, interval orders), and discrete optimization (minimum weight spanning trees, shortest paths, network flows). There are also chapters introducing discrete probability, Ramsey theory, combinatorial applications of network flows, and a few other nuggets of discrete mathematics.

Complex Analysis

A first course in complex analysisA First Course in Complex Analysis
Matthias Beck, Gerald Marchesi, Dennis Pixton, and Lucas Sabalka

For many of our students, Complex Analysis is their first rigorous analysis (if not mathematics) class they take, and this book reflect this very much. We tried to rely on as few concepts from real analysis as possible. In particular, series and sequences are treated from scratch, which has the (maybe disadvantageous) consequence that power series are introduced late in the course. The goal our book works toward is the Residue Theorem, including some nontraditional applications from both continuous and discrete mathematics.

Important license note: Copyright 2002-2017 by the authors. All rights reserved. This book may be freely reproduced and distributed, provided that it is reproduced in its entirety from the most recent version. This book may not be altered in any way, except for changes in format required for printing or other distribution, without the permission of the authors.

Differential Equations

Notes on Diffy Qs textbookNotes on Diffy Qs: Differential Equations for Engineers

A one semester first course on differential equations, aimed at engineering students. Prerequisite for the course is the basic calculus sequence. This free online book (e-book in webspeak) should be usable as a stand-alone textbook or as a companion to a course using another book such as Edwards and Penney, Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems: Computing and Modeling or Boyce and DiPrima, Elementary Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems (section correspondence to these two is given).

License: This work is dual licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 License and Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 License.

Elementary Differential Equations with Boundary Value Problems textbookElementary Differential Equations with Boundary Value Problems

These texts are appropriate for a first course in differential equations for one or two semesters. There are more than 2000 exercises, and the student manual has solutions for most of the even numbered ones.

License: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Discrete Math

applied discrete structures textbookApplied Discrete Structures

From the American Institute of Mathematics:

This textbook contains the content of a two semester course in discrete structures, which is typically a second-year course for students in computer science or mathematics, but it does not have a calculus prerequisite. The material for the first semester is in chapters 1-10 and includes logic, set theory, functions, relations, recursion, graphs, trees, and elementary combinatorics. The second semester material in chapters 11-16 deals with algebraic structures: binary operations, groups, matrix algebra, Boolean algebra, monoids and automata, rings and fields.

Applied Discrete Structures by Alan Doerr & Kenneth Levasseur is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.


discrete mathematics textbookDiscrete Mathematics: An Open Introduction

From the American Institute of Mathematics:

This open source textbook is being used at the University of Northern Colorado in a discrete mathematics course taken primarily by math majors, many of whom plan to become secondary teachers. This text can also be used in a bridge course or introduction to proofs. The major topics are introduced with Investigate! activities designed to get students more actively involved and which are suitable for inquiry based learning.

Discrete Mathematics: An Open Introduction by Oscar Levin is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Geometry and Topology

Geometry with an Introduction to Cosmic Topology

Michael P. Hitchman

From the preface:

Geometry with an Introduction to Cosmic Topology offers an introduction to non-Euclidean geometry through the lens of questions that have ignited the imagination of stargazers since antiquity. What is the shape of the universe? Does the universe have an edge? Is it infinitely big? This text is intended for undergraduate mathematics and physics majors who have completed a multivariable calculus course and are ready for a course that practices the habits of thought needed in advanced courses of the undergraduate mathematics curriculum. The text is also particularly suited to independent study, with essays and other discussions complementing the mathematical content in several sections.

License: Copyright by author: all rights reserved; you can print copies for personal use.

Introduction to Proofs

a gentle introduction to the art of mathematics textbook

A Gentle Introduction to the Art of Mathematics

Joseph E. Fields

This book is designed for the transition course between calculus and differential equations and the upper division mathematics courses with an emphasis on proof and abstraction. The book has been used by the author and several other faculty at Southern Connecticut State University. There are nine chapters and more than enough material for a semester course. Student reviews are favorable.

GIAM is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License version 1.3.

mathematical reasoning textbookMathematical Reasoning: Writing and Proof

Ted Sundstrom

Mathematical Reasoning: Writing and Proof is designed to be a text for the first course in the college mathematics curriculum that introduces students to the processes of constructing and writing proofs and focuses on the formal development of mathematics. 

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License.

Liberal Arts Math

David Lippman

This book is a survey of contemporary mathematical topics, most non-algebraic, appropriate for a college-level quantitative literacy topics course for liberal arts majors. The text is designed so that most chapters are independent, allowing the instructor to choose a selection of topics to be covered. Emphasis is placed on the applicability of the mathematics. Core material for each topic is covered in the main text, with additional depth available through exploration exercises appropriate for in-class, group, or individual investigation. 

mathematical discovery textbookMathematical Discovery

Andrew M. Bruckner, Brian S. Thomson, Judith B. Bruckner

This is a book about mathematics appreciation via discovery, rather than about practical mathematics. It considers several problems that don't appear to be amenable to ordinary arithmetic, algebraic or geometric techniques. It then guides the reader through the process of discovering the solution to each problem, using creative methods and simple techniques that arise naturally. It also indicates how each solution leads to new questions, provides a bit of history of the problem, and discusses a few related problems of current interest that have not yet been solved.

License:  Copyright by authors: A.M .Bruckner, J.B. Bruckner, and B.S.Thomson  (2012)

Linear Algebra

a first course in linear algebra textbookA First Course in Linear Algebra

Rob Beezer

From the American Institute of Mathematics:

This book is a well-organized text with carefully constructed examples, a full quota of exercises with solutions, and an emphasis that is algebraic rather than geometric. The book is Sage-enabled with approximately 90 examples of Sage code spread throughout. The book sections can be loaded into Sage as worksheets so that the code can be evaluated immediately; however, it is not necessary to use Sage in order to make use of this textbook.

License: Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the appendix entitled GNU Free Documentation License.


linear algebra textbookLinear Algebra

Jim Hefferon

From the American Institute of Mathematics: "This book has the standard content of a course for science, math, and engineering students that follows calculus. A semester of calculus is the explicit prerequisite, but most students would have three semesters of calculus and for them some of the beginning sections of the book can be skipped. Each chapter ends with three or four applications of that chapter’s subject."

License: This book is licensed under both  the GNU Free Documentation License and the  Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License,

Linear Algebra Done Wrong

Sergei Treil

From the American Institute of Mathematics: "Brown University has two introductory linear algebra courses. This text is used in the honors course that emphasizes proofs. The book’s title suggests that it is not the typical approach to linear algebra even among those books that are more theoretical. For example, the concept of a basis is treated as more fundamental than the concept of linear independence, and linear transformations are introduced before solving systems of linear equations. Especially noteworthy is the motivation and development of determinants."

License: This book  is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.


a friendly introduction to mathematical logic textbookA Friendly Introduction to Mathematical Logic

Christopher C. Leary and Lars Kristiansen

From the introduction:

At the intersection of mathematics, computer science, and philosophy, mathematical logic examines the power and limitations of formal mathematical thinking. In this expansion of Leary’s user-friendly 1st edition, readers with no previous study in the field are introduced to the basics of model theory, proof theory, and computability theory. The text is designed to be used either in an upper division undergraduate classroom, or for self study. Updating the 1st Edition’s treatment of languages, structures, and deductions, leading to rigorous proofs of Gödel’s First and Second Incompleteness Theorems, the expanded 2nd Edition includes a new introduction to incompleteness through computability as well as solutions to selected exercises.

Print copies available on, and

License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.


Mathematical Computing

Sage for Undergraduates

Gregory Bard

From the American Institute of Mathematics:

"This textbook serves admirably as an introduction for newcomers to Sage as well as a reference for those with some experience. It is written in an engaging and informal style and does an excellent job in explaining how Sage works. The book can be used profitably as an auxiliary text in any undergraduate mathematics class with a computational component, and it can be used in the mathematical software courses that are becoming more common, especially for math majors."

License: unknown.

Numerical Analysis

Tea Time Numerical Analysis textbookTea Time Numerical Analysis

Leon Q. Brin

"This book was developed as the text for a first course in numerical analysis at Southern Connecticut State University as an open source alternative to a classic text such as Burden and Faires. The first five chapters make up the content of a semester course. The style is engaging and conversational. As the author writes in the preface: “Much of the material will be presented as if it were being told to a student during tea time at University, but with the benefit of careful planning.” The exercises are plentiful and well-designed, and many of them have extensive solutions."
License: Tea Time Numerical Analysis by Leon Q. Brin is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Number Theory

A Computational Introduction to Number Theory and Algebra

Victor Shoup

From the American Institute of Mathematics:

"This books does not presuppose any previous background in number theory or algebra, but it quickly moves into material beyond the usual courses in math departments because of the emphasis on algorithms and computation. The chapter titles give an idea of the unusual flavor of this book, which has a number of topics that would be suitable for a senior level “advanced topics” course following a more traditional algebra or number theory course. The author writes that the book could “be used as a textbook in a graduate or upper-division undergraduate course on (computational) number theory and algebra, perhaps geared towards computer science students.”

Although this book is published commercially by Cambridge University Press, who has the exclusive right to distribute it in print form, the publisher has granted access to a free PDF version that individuals can download, use, and print."

License: The book is freely available for download in PDF format under a Creative Commons license


Introduction to Probability

Charles M. Grinstead and J. Laurie Snell

From the American Institute of Mathematics

  • This book of about 500 pages has become a classic because of its engaging style, interesting examples, historical notes, pedagogical use of computer simulations, and more than 600 exercises. Thanks to the American Mathematical Society the book is freely available, although many readers will want to buy the hardcover edition from the AMS.

From the authors' website:

  • Our book emphasizes the use of computing to simulate experiments and make computations. We have prepared a set of programs to go with the book. We have Mathematica, Maple, and TrueBASIC versions of these programs. You can download the programs from this location. We also have experimental versions of the programs as Java applets written for us by Julian Devlin. The answers to the odd-numbered problems are available from this website. We would be happy to provide the solutions to all of the exercises to instructors of courses that use this book. Requests should be sent to Errata found since the second printing of the book can be found in errata. We would appreciate hearing from you concerning additional corrections and suggestions for improvement. Send comments to or

License: This work is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License (FDL).

Real Analysis

basic analysis I textbookBasic Analysis: Introduction to Real Analysis

Jiří Lebl

This is a 2-volume textbook, consisting of a year-long course.

From the American Institute of Mathematics:

  • The book is quite new but has already been used by a number of other faculty at other institutions who say that they recommend the book and would use it again. This book originated as lecture notes for the undergraduate analysis course at the University of Illinois in 2009, and so it follows the syllabus for that course based on the text of Bartle and Sherbert.

License: this work is dual licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License and the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of these licenses, visit by-nc-sa/4.0/ . or


introduction to real analysis textbookIntroduction to Real Analysis

William F. Trench

Using a clear and informal approach, this book introduces readers to a rigorous understanding of mathematical analysis and presents challenging math concepts as clearly as possible. This book is intended for those who want to gain an understanding of mathematical analysis and challenging mathematical concepts.

License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

mathematical analysisMathematical Analysis I

Elias Zakon

From the author website:

  • This award-winning text carefully leads the student through the basic topics of Real Analysis. Topics include metric spaces, open and closed sets, convergent sequences, function limits and continuity, compact sets, sequences and series of functions, power series, differentiation and integration, Taylor's theorem, total variation, rectifiable arcs, and sufficient conditions of integrability. Well over 500 exercises (many with extensive hints) assist students through the material.

License:  this book is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported.

How We Got from There to Here:  A Story of Real Analysis

Robert Rogers and Eugene Boman

From the American Institute of Mathematics:

  • This text for a semester course portrays real analysis in the context of its historical development. It is written in a direct style aimed at students and not instructors. A student using the book is guided to understand and prove much of the actual mathematical content through the more than 200 problems that are embedded within the narrative and not placed at the end of sections as in most textbooks. For a course taught in the inquiry based learning mode this book should work better than standard texts. On the other hand, with the instructor offering more guidance it should also work well with a more traditional classroom style.

LicenseAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC BY-NC-SA


A ProblemText in Advanced Calculus

John M. Erdman

From the American Institute of Mathematics:

  • This text is designed for a year long real analysis course at the advanced undergraduate level. It is both a textbook and a well-structured problem set. It is carefully laid out so that nothing has to be relearned in the transition from real valued functions to vector valued functions. It can be used for self-study by an independent student or for review, and it provides an excellent background for the traditional graduate course in real analysis. 

License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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